Situation analysis of the urban sanitation sector in Kenya

Themes: Faecal sludge management Research Sanitation Urban Sanitation Research Initiative
Countries: Kenya

This report, part of WSUP’s Urban Sanitation Research Initiative, explores the background to the urban sanitation sector in Kenya.

Summary of findings:

  • Kenya is one of Africa’s top 10 economies, experiencing strong urban growth amid deep institutional and governance reforms.
  • A minority of urban residents use improved sanitation facilities as per the JMP definition, while wastewater treatment and faecal sludge transport/treatment services are largely inefficient.
  • The legal framework for sanitation remains fragmented and focuses on sewerage services.
  • The policy framework sets high ambitions and recognises a range of solutions and service provision models.
  • There is significant institutional fragmentation and overlap, especially between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Water and Irrigation.
  • Investments in sanitation for low-income areas are almost entirely donor-funded.
  • Inadequate institutional capacity, inadequate sector financing and insufficient data are major barriers to pro-poor sanitation.