Analysing implementation of regulations requiring landlords to provide acceptable sanitation

Project Duration November 2016 - August 2017 Category: Regulation and smart enforcement Country: Ghana Delivered by: NHance Development Partners
Themes: Regulation Research Sanitation Urban Sanitation Research Initiative


To build towards improved enforcement of municipal regulations that require landlords in Ghanaian cities to provide acceptable sanitation facilities for tenants, and to increase market demand for sanitation services (toilet construction, septic tank emptying).


Nearly half of landlords are unaware of the existence of such by-laws. Most tenants (93%) who are aware of the by-law have not lodged any complaint with the relevant authority (the Environmental Health & Sanitation Department), for fear of eviction.

The key barriers to the construction of household and compound toilets in Ghana are lack of capital, limited land space, and the wide availability of public toilets. Ga West Municipal Authority (the regulator) reports a number of critical bottlenecks to enforcement, including a lack of financial resources and incentives.

Next steps

The Government of Ghana is committed to ensuring that every household in Ghana will be able to access their own toilet (‘one house, one toilet’). The sanitation by-laws are now being enforced more systematically, but this may not lead to more household toilets being constructed if the other barriers (such as high usage of public toilets or high costs of materials) are not tackled.

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